Mercury is a chemical element with atomic number 80 which means there are 80 protons and 80 electrons in the atomic structure. Other elements that do not readily form amalgams with mercury include platinum. [100][101], Mercury also enters into the environment through the improper disposal (e.g., land filling, incineration) of certain products. Many historic applications made use of the peculiar physical properties of mercury, especially as a dense liquid and a liquid metal: Others applications made use of the chemical properties of mercury: Mercury(I) chloride (also known as calomel or mercurous chloride) has been used in traditional medicine as a diuretic, topical disinfectant, and laxative. For example, in 1976 Santa Clara County, California purchased the historic Almaden Quicksilver Mine and created a county park on the site, after conducting extensive safety and environmental analysis of the property. This process is called biomagnification. [137] In 2002, several lakes in Norway were found to have a poor state of mercury pollution, with an excess of 1 µg/g of mercury in their sediment. Mercury can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes and mercury vapors can be inhaled, so containers of mercury are securely sealed to avoid spills and evaporation. [46] Thiomersal is metabolized to ethyl mercury. In one small study including 11 construction workers exposed to elemental mercury, patients were treated with DMSA and NAP. The FDA has "inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness" of the mercury ingredients in these products. Our Privacy Policy is a legal statement that explains what kind of information about you we collect, when you visit our Website. Commercial calibration lamps are sold for this purpose; reflecting a fluorescent ceiling light into a spectrometer is a common calibration practice. A still increasing amount is used as gaseous mercury in fluorescent lamps, while most of the other applications are slowly phased out due to health and safety regulations and is in some applications replaced with less toxic but considerably more expensive Galinstan alloy. [134] There are restrictions for mercury concentration in packaging (the limit is 100 ppm for sum of mercury, lead, hexavalent chromium and cadmium) and batteries (the limit is 5 ppm). Classified as a transition metal, Mercury is a liquid at room temperature. Edlich, Richard F.; Rhoads, Samantha K.; Cantrell, Holly S.; Azavedo, Sabrina M. and Newkirk, Anthony T. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, standard conditions for temperature and pressure, membrane cell or diaphragm cell technologies, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act, "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", "Magnetic Susceptibility of the Elements And Inorganic Compounds", Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, "Why is mercury liquid? They believed that different metals could be produced by varying the quality and quantity of sulfur contained within the mercury. [64] Gaseous mercury is added to cold cathode argon-filled lamps to increase the ionization and electrical conductivity. The rule was deemed not sufficient to protect the health of persons living near coal-fired power plants, given the negative effects documented in the EPA Study Report to Congress of 1998. Atomic Mass of Mercury. ), Basic Mercury Subsulphate; Turpeth Mineral, Quantities of liquid mercury ranging from 90 to 600 grams (3.2 to 21.2 oz) have been recovered from elite, As an electrically conductive liquid, it was used in, Owing to its acoustic properties, mercury was used as the propagation medium in, Mercury was used for preserving wood, developing. [89] It is also used as a disinfectant. "Chapter 3: Manufacturing Processes Involving Mercury. Gaseous mercury is used in mercury-vapor lamps and some "neon sign" type advertising signs and fluorescent lamps. Like ZnS, HgS crystallizes in two forms, the reddish cubic form and the black zinc blende form. [66], Mercury, as thiomersal, is widely used in the manufacture of mascara. One example is Hg2+3(AsF−6)2.[41]. [34] In China, prison labor was used by a private mining company as recently as the 1950s to develop new cinnabar mines. 05-1097)", "Oldest, dirtiest power plants told to clean up", "EPA Regulations Give Kilns Permission To Pollute", "Directive 2002/95/EC on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment", "EU bans mercury in barometers, thermometers", "Sweden may be forced to lift ban on mercury — The Local", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – Mercury Topic, Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC): Mercury Contamination in Fish guide, NLM Hazardous Substances Databank – Mercury, BBC – Earth News – Mercury 'turns' wetland birds such as ibises homosexual, Changing Patterns in the Use, Recycling, and Material Substitution of Mercury in the United States,, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2017, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Mercury Bichloride (Corrosive Mercuric Chloride, U.S.P. [50] Mercury compounds are found in some over-the-counter drugs, including topical antiseptics, stimulant laxatives, diaper-rash ointment, eye drops, and nasal sprays. Former mercury mines may be suited for constructive re-use. Second Energy Level: 8. One unified atomic mass unit is approximately the mass of one nucleon (either a single proton or neutron) and is numerically equivalent to 1 g/mol. What is the atomic mass of mercury? [93] Protocols call for physically merging smaller droplets on hard surfaces, combining them into a single larger pool for easier removal with an eyedropper, or for gently pushing the spill into a disposable container. Another mercury compound, merbromin (Mercurochrome), is a topical antiseptic used for minor cuts and scrapes that is still in use in some countries. [118][119] A study has shown that acute exposure (4–8 hours) to calculated elemental mercury levels of 1.1 to 44 mg/m3 resulted in chest pain, dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis, impairment of pulmonary function, and evidence of interstitial pneumonitis. Since the amalgam destroys the aluminium oxide layer which protects metallic aluminium from oxidizing in-depth (as in iron rusting), even small amounts of mercury can seriously corrode aluminium. Skin tanner containing a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and two infrared lamps, which act both as light source and electrical ballast. The World Health Organization, OSHA, and NIOSH all treat mercury as an occupational hazard, and have established specific occupational exposure limits. [110] The highest mercury concentrations were shown to occur in and around the city of London in association with fine grain muds and high total organic carbon content. It is found either as a native metal (rare) or in cinnabar, metacinnabar, corderoite, livingstonite and other minerals, with cinnabar (HgS) being the most common ore.[27][28] Mercury ores usually occur in very young orogenic belts where rocks of high density are forced to the crust of Earth,[citation needed] often in hot springs or other volcanic regions. Most thermometers now use pigmented alcohol instead of mercury, and galinstan alloy thermometers are also an option. [29], Beginning in 1558, with the invention of the patio process to extract silver from ore using mercury, mercury became an essential resource in the economy of Spain and its American colonies.