James was released in April 1214 and recognized as sovereign in Aragon and Catalonia; placed under the protection of the Knights Templars at Monzón, he was cared for and educated by them. He was an important figure in the development of Catalan, sponsoring Catalan literature and writing a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign: the Llibre dels fets. James was born at Montpellier as the only son of Peter II of Aragon and Marie of Montpellier, heiress of William VIII of Montpellier and Eudokia Komnene. Ascended to the throne at a very young age (1213), he remained under the protection of the Order of the Templars and the regent Count of Roussillon. This division of realms among his heirs was not James’s only political blunder. A photograph of the king was taken. James was then sent to Monzón, where he was entrusted to the care of Guillem de Montredón, the head of the Knights Templar in Spain and Provence; the regency meanwhile fell to his great uncle Sancho, Count of Roussillon, and his son, the king's cousin, Nuño. The children in the third marriage were recognised in his last will as being in the line of succession to the throne, should the senior lines fail. Indeed, he may himself be called "the first of the Catalan prose writers. Chroniclers say he used gunpowder in the siege of Museros castle. From 1230 to 1232, James negotiated with Sancho VII of Navarre, who desired his help against his nephew and closest living male relative, Theobald IV of Champagne. According to the continuator of William of Tyre, he returned via Montpellier por l'amor de sa dame Berenguiere ("for the love his lady Berengaria") and abandoned any further effort at a crusade.  She surrendered Lleida to James and agreed to hold Urgell in fief for him. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Full online book The Chronicle Of James I Of Aragon. James I the Conqueror was King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276; King of Majorca from 1231 to 1276; and Valencia from 1238 to 1276. Peter endeavoured to placate the northern crusaders by arranging a marriage between his son Ja… According to the treaty, all lands south of a line from Biar to Villajoyosa through Busot were reserved for Castile. In 1233 James began a second war of reconquest—against the Saracen rulers of the Kingdom of Valencia. Corrections? More controversially, some historians have looked at these writings as a source of Catalan identity, separate from that of Occitania and Rome. James I, byname James The Conqueror, Spanish Jaime El Conquistador, (born Feb. 2, 1208, Montpellier, County of Toulouse—died July 27, 1276, Valencia, Valencia), the most renowned of the medieval kings of Aragon (1213–76), who added the Balearic Islands and Valencia to his realm and thus initiated the Catalan-Aragonese expansion in the Mediterranean that was to reach its zenith in the last decades of the 14th century. James compiled the Llibre del Consulat de Mar, which governed maritime trade and helped establish Aragonese supremacy in the western Mediterranean. James I married twice. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. He entrusted the boy to be educated in Montfort's care in 1211, but was soon forced to take up arms against him, dying at the Battle of Muret on 12 September 1213. Nonetheless, James, who was then campaigning in Murcia, made peace with Mohammed I ibn Nasr, the Sultan of Granada, and set about collecting funds for a crusade. Premium Membership is now 50% off! James and Sancho negotiated a treaty whereby James would inherit Navarre on the old Sancho's death, but when this did occur, the Navarrese nobles instead elevated Theobald to the throne (1234), and James disputed it. Valencia capitulated to Aragonese rule on 28 September 1238 following an extensive campaign that included the Siege of Burriana and the decisive Battle of the Puig, where the Aragonese commander, Bernardo Guillermo de Entenza, who was also the king's cousin, died from wounds received in action. Also acquired during the reconquest were Minorca 1232 and Ibiza 1235). Peter endeavoured to placate the northern crusaders by arranging a marriage between his son James and Simon's daughter, when the former was only two year… , Though James was himself a prose writer and sponsored mostly prose works, he had an appreciation of verse. James first married, in 1221, Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Eleanor of England. He was, however, able to develop relations and promote trade with the states of North Africa; and, with a clear view of the future, he married his principal heir, Peter, to Constance of Sicily, thus making it easy for the latter kingdom to be added in later years to the crown of Aragon. Montfort would willingly have used James as a means of extending his own power had not the Aragonese appealed to Pope Innocent III, who insisted that Montfort surrender him. James was born at Montpellier as the only son of Peter II of Aragon and Marie of Montpellier. A Hebrew translator by the name of Jehuda was employed at James's court during this period. James I the Conqueror (Catalan: Jaume el Conqueridor, Aragonese: Chaime lo Conqueridor, Spanish: Jaime el Conquistador, Occitan: Jacme lo Conquistaire; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was the King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. https://www.britannica.com/biography/James-I-king-of-Aragon, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute - James I "the Conqueror” King of Aragon. Updates? The division inevitably produced fratricidal conflicts. The photograph of the head of the mummy clearly shows the wound in the left eyebrow that the king himself explained in a passage from his Llibre dels fets (Book of Deeds): As I was coming with the men, I happened to turn my head towards the town in order to look at the Saracens, who had come out in great force, when a cross-bowman shot at me, and hit me beside the sun-hood, and the shot struck me on the head, the bolt lighting near the forehead.  In consequence of the Albigensian Crusade, many troubadours were forced to flee southern France and many found refuge in Aragon. As with the much earlier Visigothic attempt, this policy was victim to physical, cultural, and political obstacles. Notwithstanding his early patronage of poetry, by the influence of his confessor Ramon de Penyafort, James brought the Inquisition into his realm in 1233 to prevent any vernacular translation of the Bible.. Patronage of art, learning, and literature, Juan Garci Atienza: The Knights Templar in the Golden Age of Spain, P.149. Peter endeavoured to placate the northern crusaders by arranging a marriage between his son James and Simon's daughter. In the second division, his elder son, Peter, received Aragon, Valencia, and Catalonia, and his younger son, James, received the Balearic Islands, Roussillon, and other Pyrenean counties that he was to hold in fief from Peter. James was the first great sponsor and patron of vernacular Catalan literature. In 1227 James took over the effective government of his kingdoms and at once began the first of his great campaigns of reconquest—that of the Balearic Islands.